Saturday, June 27, 2020

Theological and Literary Analysis of Endo’s Silence - Literature Essay Samples

Shusaku Endo’s Silence follows the experience of the young Catholic missionary Father Rodrigues and his companion Father Garrpe in their attempt to help the brutally oppressed Christians of 17th century Japan. As a 20th-century novel, Silence presents readers with a historically accurate yet captivating account of the harsh realities of both 17th century Japanese society and Catholic missionary work. However, the true genius within Silence is the religious and spiritual introspection which it inspires. By following the deeply personal theological struggles of Father Rodrigues we as readers are forced to face the same existential questions and moral dilemmas facing him. Silence can, and has been analyzed in various ways through the years. To truly grasp the full aesthetic power of the work, readers must examine it as both a work of literature and theology. As a work of literature, Silence is considered a masterpiece by many for a number of reasons. However few acknowledge one of the significant literary accomplishments of the book: Endo not only perfects the Catholic modernist literary aesthetic, he expands and further modernizes it. Furthermore, as a work of theology Silence raises many interesting points and questions, particularly about the meaning of sacrifice. In many ways, Father Rodriguess decision to apostatize is congruent with the â€Å"transcendence of sacrifice† as described by Jill Robbins. In this essay we will look at both these aspects of the work. In the early 20th century, much of Europe experienced what was known as the Catholic Literary Revival. During this period many writers including Graham Greene, Francois Mauriac and Flannery O’Connor found success by utilizing what became known as the Catholic aesthetic. Yoshihiko Yoshimitsu, an influential teacher of Endo, was also familiar with this aesthetic and helped introduce it to him. The writer David Lodge identifies four key attributes of this Catholic aesthetic namely, â€Å"the idea of the sinner at the heart of Christianity, the doctrine of mystical substitution, the implied criticism of materialism, and the tireless pursuit of the erring soul by God† (Bosco 81). Endo read much of the work by the Catholic writers and spent time in France studying this particular aesthetic. Endo’s work evidently paid off as he wrote Silence, what many including Graham Greene consider to be one of the greatest works of the Catholic literary aesthetic. Mark Bosco, in his essay â€Å"Charting Endo’s Catholic Literary Aesthetic† examines why this is this case. Silence manifests each of these four key attributes. As Bosco points out, the story revolves primarily around the characters of Rodrigues and Kichijiro, both of whom in the end have apostatized yet are capable of finding a sense of salvation despite their sins. They are sinners, but they are at the center of the story in accordance with the literary aesthetic. Similarly, Rodrigues apostasy can be viewed as a â€Å"mystical substitution†. Bosco contends that his apostasy is †¦Ã¢â‚¬ an act of love that mystically substitutes his own righteousness for those being tortured for his sake† (Bosco 82). The â€Å"tireless pursuit of the erring soul† is also evident in Silence in the character of Kichijiro who despite his continuous faltering continues to come back to the faith. As Bosco puts it, â€Å"†¦even in one’s freedom to disavow God or a divine agency, this God continues to pursue the soul† (Bosco 83). While Endo’s novel masterfully epitomizes the essence of the Catholic aesthetic, it also expands upon it. Endo successfully integrates the fundamental aspects of the Catholic literary aesthetic with an authentic representation of Japanese culture and society. Japan is not only geographically different from Catholic Europe, it is politically, culturally and religiously different as well and yet Endo himself and Rodrigues in the book, are capable of ultimately reconciling these things with their own sense of Catholic faith. This in turn transforms the Catholic literary aesthetic and the theology associated with it from a distinctly European movement into a global one. The global sense of Catholicism conveyed in Silence in which meaningful contributions can be made to Catholic literature and theology from outside Europe, in strange places like Japan, helps to bring the aesthetic into a modern context. As Bosco puts it, â€Å"Silence forces one to relinquish any rationalized and distorted faith in order encounter the image of God in unlikely places, and among unlikely people† (Bosco 90). Silence also forces people to relinquish any preconceived western ideas of the ways in which the Catholic literary aesthetic can and can’t be used. This is the literary beauty of the work. It internalizes and accepts the fundamental literary aspects of the Catholic literary aesthetic while also expanding it by bringing it to a more global and modern stage. From a theological context, Silence offers a number of meaningful insights particularly about Christian sacrifice and suffering. Having Father Rodrigues apostatize to end the suffering of the Japanese peasants Endo makes us question what exactly it means to sacrifice and suffer for others. Traditional Catholic conceptions of sacrifice typically revolve around the idea of the glorious martyr. Father Rodrigues himself is transfixed on this idea of martyrdom. While in Japan he is constantly contemplating whether he will have the spiritual and physical resolve to die for his faith. Yet as we see Rodrigues begins to become disillusioned with the idea of the glorious martyrdom after he witnesses the death of the two Japanese peasants who are crucified on the coast. He is struck by the meaninglessness of their deaths and the silence of God. Father Garrpe’s death as well seems to be of little use as he fails to save any of the peasants who are thrown into the sea. Really the only sacr ifices that we see that seem to make any difference are the various apostasies that occur. This notion is supported by the fact that when Rodrigues is going to trample on the fumie he allegedly hears the voice of Christ encouraging him to do so. In this case God is not silent. What does Endo mean to suggest about Christian sacrifice and suffering by this? The article titled â€Å"Sacrifice† by Jill Robbins could be used to provide some answers. In this article, Robbins traces the origins of Christian sacrifice from the Old Testament to the New Testament. What she discovers is an apparent discrepancy between what is described as â€Å"the older sacrifice† and the understanding of sacrifice found in the New Testament manifested in the death of Christ. The older form of sacrifice typically found in the Old Testament is more associated with the sacrifice of animals and offerings. These offerings and sacrifices are finite and often meaningless, performed habitually. It is a markedly outward form of Christian sacrifice which has little to do with the internal mindset. The newer form of sacrifice is one which Robbins contends is characterized by a â€Å"transcendence of sacrifice†. The sacrifices of the New Testament are more personal and inf inite, with an emphasis on the inward attitude of the performer. As Robbins points out â€Å"†¦the West’s discourse on sacrifice would seem to rest on a foundation in which sacrifice has been surmounted and gone beyond. This is the case with the sacrifice of Christ, who according to the author of Hebrews, offered once and for all a single sacrifice for sins, as opposed to the priest who repeatedly offers the same meaningless sacrifices† (Robbins 288). Christ by dying for the sins of man has therefore ended the need for continual and repeated sacrifice. His life is irreplaceable and his sacrifice is therefore infinite. In many ways the conventional martyrdoms present in Endo’s Silence could be comparable to this â€Å"older† form of sacrifice while the apostasy of Rodrigues is somewhat congruent with the newer understanding of sacrifice. The martyrdoms of the characters in Silence as well as the martyrdoms of real life are finite in the fact that thei r suffering, while potentially excruciating, is indeed momentary, physical, and to some extent desired. Like the sacrifices of the old days, these sacrifices are distinctly outward. The suffering and sacrifice inflicted on Father Rodrigues during and after his apostasy on the other hand, is neither momentary, physical, or desired. His reputation is gone and his faith is altered forever. He is now an outcast and a sinner. Yet because of this the sacrifice is infinite and transcendent like Christ’s sacrifice. Their sacrifices performed to save others hinder and pain them forever but because of this the sacrifices can be seen as true sacrifice. As Christ was placed among the thieves and sinners so is Rodrigues. However this is precisely the theological point that Endo is attempting to make. True Christian sacrifice is achieved through suffering on an infinite, personal, and inward level not through simple habitual rituals or a glorified public death. Endo’s theological and literary achievements are unique in that they stem from the outside. His academic literary sense and his theological knowledge are based on European western ideals but retain a distinct outside perspective and understanding that is only available to someone who knows both the outside and the inside. Endo felt displaced in Japan for being a Catholic and felt displaced in Christendom for being Japanese. Yet despite this or perhaps because of it, Endo was capable of developing his own literary techniques and theological perspective. Because he often felt uncomfortable due to his cultural, and religious differences as an outsider Endo, and Rodrigues in many ways, were forced to confront and reconcile with unpleasant realities. It is often the case in life that feelings of discomfort are the natural stimulus for change and reflection. Discomfort is very closely associated with displacement, whether it be geographic, cultural, spiritual, theological, emotional , or all the above. Yet these changes and time spent in reflection due to discomfort and displacement often lead us to our best selves in which we recognize the truths which were once obscure. This is evident in both the life of Endo and the character of Rodrigues in the fact that through their trials and struggles they both find a sense of personal and theological enlightenment. Sometimes these feelings of discomfort and subsequent self-discovery are entirely natural and unavoidable. Other times they can be intentionally invoked by moving outside one’s comfort zone in a geographic, theological, or personal sense. Either way the challenges associated with discomfort and displacement should be embraced not ran away from. As we can see through both Endo and the character of Father Rodrigues, these struggles can lead to personal, spiritual and intellectual growth.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Should Abortion Be Legalized Active Euthanasia Essay

Montana, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington. The first state to legalize active euthanasia was Oregon in 1994. In 2015, California legalized active euthanasia, making it the most recent state to do so. In all states that active euthanasia is legal, patients who wish to undergo euthanasia must comply with the criteria to be eligible. All patients must be 18 years old or older and must be terminally ill with six months or less of life expectancy. Patients must then give two verbal requests to their physician no fewer than two weeks apart from one another. Then a patient must give a written order to the physician requesting euthanasia. After all of these steps have been completed, a patient may then receive euthanasia by receiving a lethal dose of medication. Because life and death hang in the balance, the right to die movement can provoke a variety of very strong emotions. As is the case with any topic, there are many differing views and opinions in regards to the right to die. Some health care professionals are very supportive of the idea while others are very opposed. This is no surprise as each individual has his or her own unique feelings about death and what EOL care should look like. It is important that health care providers, nurses and physicians alike, are familiar with the ethical codes that they are sworn to uphold. For physicians, the right to die movement arguably presents a greater ethical dilemma than it does for nurses. In the five states where physician-assistedShow MoreRelatedShould Euthanasia Be Legalized? Essay1200 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å" To insist on artificially maintaining existence without regard for its condition is a degradation of the meaning of life, not a promotion of it (Cockeram 33) .† Many adults perceive euthanasia as a murderous act that involves cruel and unusual pain; when in fact, it is usually a method that helps the individual reach their demise in a less miserable manor. Immigrants to the United States are inclined to become a citizen, not for the beautiful geography, but because the U.S. is one of the few countriesRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Euthanasia752 Words   |  4 PagesEuthanasia is the termination of a very sick person’s life in order to relieve them of their pain and suffering. Euthanasia is from a Greek word meaning easy death. The person who undergoes euthanasia usually has an incurable condition and in some cases wants their life to be ended. Euthanasia can be done at the request of a person which is voluntary but at the same time if a per is too sick and i s unable to make the decision the family/next of kin inline, do chose or the court makes the decisionRead MoreWebsite Analysis of National Right to Life Committee (NRLC)696 Words   |  3 PagesMovement, Abortion, Assisted Suicide, Life, Organization. Introduction National Right to Life Committee(NRLC) is the second oldest and largest pro-life organization in the United States. This social movement organization deals with several life-related issues like abortion, assisted suicide or euthanasia, cloning, Medicare issues and so on. However, my focus topics are â€Å"Abortion† and â€Å"Assisted Suicide/ Euthanasia† because these are the two most common issues life-related issues. Abortion The rateRead MoreThe Hidden Potential Of Euthanasia1006 Words   |  5 PagesThe Hidden Potential of Euthanasia When people think of the term â€Å"dying with dignity† they will usually picture themselves living a very fulfilling life where everyone saw them as some sort of hero. Maybe they want to be seen as someone who was strong and kept up with a battle to fight disease. This same image could come to mind with a person who chose to take their own life rather than let a disease or terminal illness be the reason for them dying. There are very few people that imagine dyingRead MorePsysician Assicted Suicide1071 Words   |  4 Pagesclearly was not. He heard her desperate plead and decided to help. He used his own invention called the Suicide Machine: a way of killing an ill patient by means of injecting lethal drugs into the patient via an IV, an example of active euthanasia. Active euthanasia occurs when an action is done with the intention of ending a persons life, such as injecting a fatal drug or medication. Finally, in a public park inside his Volkswagen van, Kevorkian attache d the IV to Jane and administered the drugsRead MoreLegalizing Active Euthanasia953 Words   |  4 PagesEthics Euthanasia is the act of killing a patient who is undergoing a very serious painful disease that can’t be cured. The killing process involved does not involve any pain. There are different classification of euthanasia; involuntary and voluntary, non-voluntary, passive and active euthanasia. Active euthanasia refers to the painless killing of a patient using poison. It is done by administering any poisonous injection to the hopeless patient (Wennberg 175). People across the world, includingRead More Assisted Suicide Or Euthanasia Essay1709 Words   |  7 Pages ASSISTED SUICIDE or euthanasia On July 26, 1997, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously upheld decisions in New York and Washington State that criminalized assisted suicide. As of April 1999, physicians-assisted suicide is illegal in all but a couple of states. Over thirty states have established laws prohibiting assisted suicide, and of those who don’t have statues, a number of them prohibit it through common law. In Michigan, Jack Kevorkian was initially charged with violating the state statue. HeRead More Euthanasia Essay1385 Words   |  6 PagesEuthanasia Euthanasia, specifically voluntary euthanasia has been a taboo subject for many decades in this, and other countries. Euthanasia, as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary – bringing about of this, especially in the case of incurable and painful disease- comes from the Greek word euthanatos, meaning – a gentle and easy death. It is commonly known as death with dignity given to those who want the choice to die. No one can prevent death. The can only prolong it. Many people solicitRead MoreEuthanasia Is Painless Killing Of A Patient1435 Words   |  6 PagesEuthanasia is painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma, also means to take a deliberate action with the express intention of ending a life to relieve intractable suffering. Some interpret as the practice of ending life in a mercy killing, assisted suicide, and soft slow suicide. There are two main classifications of euthanasia. There is Voluntary euthanasia which is conducted with consent. Where the patient decides for themselves toRead More Argumentative Paper: Legalizing Euthanasia1728 Words   |  7 Pagesdeath is a desired alternative to living in agony. Euthanasia has been a topic of debate since antiquity, and both sides stand firm on their beliefs. The right to choose death is illegal in most countries. I believe in people’s freedom to do what they please with their own bodies. The basic right of liberty is what America was founded on. Euthanasia should be a legal option. It’s important to start by understanding the different types of euthanasia. Allowing someone to die is, â€Å"Forgoing or withdrawing

Monday, May 18, 2020

Descriptive Essay A Watery Escape - 880 Words

A watery escape Homeowners often find themselves in a position where they are happy with the way their home looks, yet, wondering at times if there is something to be added or modified. Many things can come to mind when you find yourself in this predicament, and some may ponder the possibility of their own ideas. I would like to take a moment to inject an idea of improvement to your home that you may not have thought of. My suggestion to you is; a pond. Yes, it sounds extravagant, doesn’t it? Well I’m here to tell you that it is not too far-fetched of an idea. I will use this moment of your time, in six easy steps, to show you just how easy it is to create your very own watery escape. Your first step is to decide the appropriate location to break ground. The pond can be in just about any place within your property lines, and it may be any size you choose. You must remember, however, that the bigger the pond, the more expensive it will be. This is mainly due to the fact that you will need a larger pond liner and a more powerful pump. I recommend using a can of spray paint to sketch an outline on the ground of the general shape and size you want the pond to be. Now that you have decided on a location and how large to build your pond, the second step is to make a selection of construction materials based on these dimensions. You will need to purchase a pond liner that will cover the complete volume of your pond. Use your spray paint outline to measure width, length and depth.Show MoreRelatedessay on dickins journey to niagra3989 Words   |  16 Pagesand, from its unfathomable grave arises that tremendous ghost of spray and mist which is never laid, and has been haunting this place with the same dread solemnity--perhaps from the creation of the world (Letters 3: 210-11). In this essay, I analyze Dickenss reaction to Niagara Falls in the context of other British travel narratives from the previous decade, and examine how Niagara speaks to Dickens of life after death (as he describes it above, the falls die and then rise again inRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesprobable good consequences of each action and the probable bad consequences while weighing the positive and negative impact of each consequence. It’s a kind of cost-benefit analysis. Exercises 1. Columbus Day is an American holiday. Write a short essay that weighs the pros and cons and then comes to a decision about whether there should be more or less public celebration (by Americans and their institutions) on Columbus Day, October 12. Here is some relevant background information to reduce yourRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 Pagesillustrated the meaning and use of words; the great majority of the examples are due to him. Their merit is that they are not translations from English, but natural Igbo sentences elicited only by the stimulus of the word they illustrate. The short essays which appear from time to time (e.g. under otà ¹tà ¹, à ²Ã¯â‚¬ ¤gbanÌ„je) on aspects of culture are also his work, as are the sketches which served as basis for the illustrations, a large number of new words, and various features of the arrangement. When he had

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Under Armour -- Industry Analysis Essay - 999 Words

September 2013 1. Situation analysis A. General Environment Sociocultural/Demographic – Under Armour was able to build its brand image through extensive sponsorship. Under Armour now provides gear to the NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL the USA baseball and Ski teams including other professional leagues abroad. In 2005, Under Armour was supplying over 100 NCAA division I-A football programs and 30 NFL teams. Only four years since its founding Under Armour had become a globally recognized brand, and was still looking for areas to branch into within the performance apparel industry and introduced a women’s and youth line. Technological – Founder, Kevin Plank found a niche, an undershirt that could control the body temperature of the athlete and†¦show more content†¦making the power of the supplier high. 70-75 percent of Under Armour products come from only 8 suppliers that manufacture and distribute their product. Making a product such as athletic shoes is the least difficult part of being in this industry, making a product worth buying and competing at the global level is where most fail when attempting to enter the market. Power of Buyers Buyers want to reduce their costs and purchase a product at a lower or more convenient price for the best quality and service. Buyers have the choice to switch to another product at no cost. Under Armour has developed unique products that its consumers value and are willing to pay more for. Threat of Substitutes – There is a high threat of substitutes in the athletic gear industry especially when competing with companies such as Nike and Adidas who have been around much longer, have the funds to continuously innovate their products and already hold a large market share. Under Armour has used â€Å"authenticity† as it’s guiding principle to grow the company and advertise their products, but if they wish to be the number one brand of athletic gear they will have to appeal to people who are also concerned with the look of the product and not just performance. According to research done by NPD Group, almost 80 percent of activewear is used for non-sports activities. â€Å"Under Armour will need to find aShow MoreRelatedThe Marketing Strategy Of Kevin Plank Essay1210 Words   |  5 PagesKevin Plank has founded Under Armour after noticing the failure of their sport jersey (Under Armour, 2015). Since that time Under Armour went public and is part of American well-known sport gear mak er. In this pose, the company produces its production focused on inner various sports wears on a global stage (Under Armour, 2015). Identically, Plank’s business becomes emerging in the sport apparel industry. Likewise quality and innovation are important to maintain an acceptable competitive level withRead MoreUnder Armour Company1179 Words   |  5 PagesUnder Armour, founded in 1996 by CEO Kevin Plank, is a non-financial company that is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Under Armour supplies an array of sports equipment, clothing, and sports accessories, but mainly focuses on hi-tech innovative products for athletes. Plank, a former University of Maryland football player created the idea of Under Armour in his grandmother’s basement. Plank noticed during a football practice that his compression shorts would stay dry, however, he hadRead MoreUnder Armour1100 Words   |  5 PagesIBM 4711 International Strategic Management Under Armour: Working to Stay on Top of Its Game Perform a STEEP analysis to understand the general environment facing Under Armour. How will the firm be affected by external factors? Ans. Each factor under STEEP analysis giving Under Armour more information about how company should adapt itself, in order to be survived in the market. Let’s see the effects of these external factors to the company’s strategies each by each. Social factor Demographics Read MoreCompany Analysis Of Under Armour1076 Words   |  5 Pages Company Analysis of Under armour November 4th 2015 Management 300-101 Joshua Cooper 11/15/2015 Analysis of Under Armour Induction: Ever since the creation of the well-known body wear Under Armour in 1996, Kevin Plank s formal University of Maryland football player. The band has under gone rapid expansion and popularity throughout the world today being that it all started in a basement. It has taken over the performance workout apparel market in the United States andRead MoreCase Analysis : Under Armour1367 Words   |  6 PagesCase Analysis: Under Armour Situation Analysis I chose the article â€Å"Under Armour is Crushing it, Thanks to Steph Curry.† The article began by explaining how Under Armour recently became a dominant company in the sports apparel industry. Footwear sales are up 64% from the first three months of 2016, and overall sales have increased by 30%, largely due to overseas business. The reason for this continued success? Stephen Curry. In 2013, Curry’s contract with Nike expired and he chose to endorse UnderRead MoreThe Under Armour, Inc., And The Adidas Group1634 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction This analysis of the Under Armour, Inc., and its subsidiaries is depicted in the paper; Under Armour and its subsidiaries develops, markets, and distributes branded performance apparel, footwear, and accessories for men, women, and youth primarily in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Asia-Pacific, and Latin America. The company is in direct competition with Nike, Inc. and The Adidas Group. Therefore, this paper will further attempt to evaluate the pressure exertedRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Under Armour987 Words   |  4 PagesExecutive Summary Under Armour is a company that always strives to do better. They are currently trying to expand globally. While Under Armour has higher quality than most of its competitors, the cost of their merchandise is still a lot less than competitors. There are many threats to a highly-competitive sports clothing company such as Under Armor. Like many companies in the retail industry they are faced with the increasing costs of their materials and shipping expenses. Under Armour is trying to connectRead MoreCompetitive Forces Confronting Under Armour, Nike, And The Adidas Group1726 Words   |  7 Pagescompetitive forces confronting Under Armour, Nike, and The Adidas Group? Do a five-forces analysis to support your answer. Under Armour, Nike and Adidas are the top three brands known worldwide. These three companies were able to gain a strong brand to make a name for themselves in the sports apparel market today. On the other hand, Under Armour has become one of the top leading distributing companies to offer athletic apparel, footwear amongst many other things. â€Å"In 2013, Under Armour had a 14.7 percent shareRead MoreThe Impact Of Marketing On The Athletic Apparel Market1233 Words   |  5 Pagested product. Threat of New Entrants is low since the growth rate is expanding in the athletic apparel market and existing industry members are actively reaching into product segments or geographic areas where they do not have a strong presence. There is an entry barriers for new entrants in building a retail distribution, a large reliable supply chain, and securing contracts for endorsements and promotions. The other companies are established and credible brands that work on global scales. A smallerRead MoreMGMT 479 UNDER ARMOUR Powerpoint Group Essay1065 Words   |  5 PagesTeam Developed Strategic Audit – Under Armour (UA) { Group #3, MGMT 479C Team Members: WELCOME TO UNDER ARMOUR ® EVERYTHING HERE IS BUILT TO MAKE YOU BETTER. www.underarmour.com Kokou Klu ïÆ'‘ Past Corporate Performance Indexes (2009-2010) ïÆ'“ ïÆ'“ ïÆ'‘ Strategic Posture ïÆ'“ ïÆ'“ ïÆ'‘ Mission – â€Å"To make all athletes better through passion, science, and the relentless pursuit of innovation† Objectives – Become â€Å"The athletic brand of this generation. And Next.† Current Strategies ïÆ'“ ïÆ'“ ïÆ'“ ïÆ'‘ Decline in footwear

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Narni The Lion, The Witch, And Greek Myths - 1801 Words

Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Greek Myths The use of witchcraft has been around for centuries. Witchcraft was paired with the worship of Nature and pagan gods and goddesses. Just like there is a wide variety of people who call themselves witches, there is a wide variety of the types of witchcraft. People have many definitions for the word witch. Realistically speaking, witches do not wear all black with pointy hats and ride on broomsticks. Witches typically use witchcraft as part of worship or as a tool of communication with Nature and/or gods and goddesses. C. S. Lewis, the author of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe writes his story about: Four children in the magical world of Narnia filled with mythical creatures beyond a wardrobe door. In the book the children battle an evil witch who turned Narnia to an everlasting winter. With a lion named Aslan by the children?s sides, the children are able to defeat the witch and change Narnia back to what it once was. Lew is creates the White Witch, who relates to human and supernatural witches in mythology, to convey how witches have been perceives as evil and cunning, using their magic for selfish reasons, and were expected to act like so. Magic in ancient Greece was traditionally ?associated with foreign, distant places where the rules of civilization did not apply? (Segal 122). In fact, not only Greece, but ?Ancient Egypt, [Greece], and Rome treated magic as if it were science?

A Report That Examines The Role Of Expert And Lay Knowledge In Understanding And Managing Risk Free Essays

This report is going to examine how risks we face in our daily lives rely on different forms of knowledge to create an understanding of them and their consequences. This report will examine how people use expert and lay knowledge about risks in order to live with them. A brief description of risk is provided. We will write a custom essay sample on A Report That Examines The Role Of Expert And Lay Knowledge In Understanding And Managing Risk or any similar topic only for you Order Now The discussion focuses on how we live with risk and interpret expert and lay knowledge regarding risk and risk avoidance. It is also suggested that people make their own choice as to what and how they use information and to what degree of risk they consider acceptable in their lives. This is influenced by the knowledge they have and how they interpret that. Clearly an expert will be in a stronger position to accurately assess risk compared to a lay person. 1. Expert Knowledge – someone that has knowledge, skill and is qualified in a particular subject. 2. Lay Knowledge – someone who does not have specialized knowledge or training in a subject. This report will examine three examples of risk and will detail not only expert information but it will review lay opinion as well. 1. Firstly the cycling and the benefits of wearing helmet will be assessed. 2. Then a case study that detailed an allotment and the hazardous substances found in the soil. 3. The last risk to be observed will be sun exposure, sun tanning and risks and how consumerism can play apart in forming our choices. 1. Our Risky Lives 1. Risk – a state in which there is a possibility of known danger or harm, which if avoided may lead to benefits (Carter and Jordan, 2009). Almost everything we do in life comes with some degree of risk. It is how we interpret the risk that determines how we live. Some risk is taken without thinking, some risk is unavoidable, and in other cases we can reduce the risk or avoid the risk all together. 1. Cycling and the benefits of wearing a helmet Cycling will introduce the idea of risks and risk management in our material lives. Cyclists manage their risk with lights, occasional hand signals and helmets. Cyclists have to negotiate the use of the helmet, whether or not to wear one but not doing so means any injury sustained may be the cyclist’s own fault. One study shown 85 per cent reduction in the risk of head injury among cyclists who wore helmets (Thompson et al., cited in Carter and Jordan, 2009). Other research found that, when car overtakes a cyclist, the car comes significantly closer to a cyclist who wears a helmet (Walker, cited in Carter and Jordan, 2009). Taking both studies into account seems to suggest that if you wear a helmet then you are more likely to have an accident but if you have an accident then you are less likely to have head injuries. 1. Hazardous substances found in the soil Soil on an allotment will show how knowledge of an invisible risk is produced by experts but can be contested and how the allotment users used knowledge to manage the risks. The benefits of a social activity such as gardening were suddenly brought into question by publication of a scientific test on the soil. The material environment changed from being good into something that was dangerous. The soil was safe then became poisonous and then become safe again, all without the soil itself being changed. The existence of two soil tests confirms that even within science there are debates over how best to assess risk. In the case study, the same soil shifted from being safe to dangerous and back again solely as a result of different measurement practices (Carter and Jordan, 2009). This shows how the expert knowledge may or may not influence the decisions people make about managing risk. Gardener did not listen to expert knowledge about safe soil, because two contrasting results of the tests did not feel quite trustworthy. 1. Sun Exposure and expert knowledge of sun risk The last risk to be assessed will be sun exposure and sun tanning and risks. Increasingly over the last number of years dangers of sun exposure and tanning have come to the fore. Even though advice and evidence which has been produced people still continue to expose themselves to the harmful UVA rays. In this section we can look at a second case study of risk and risk management concerning holidaymakers and their attitudes to a tan. To understand the apparently risky practices connected with sun exposure we have to take seriously the ways in which people make sense of expert advice, and measure it against their own knowledge and experiences of the material world in which they live (Carter and   Jordan, 2009). The research conducted by Simon Carter used a mixture of interviews and focus groups with tourist aged 20 and 35 years of age who regularly travelled abroad for holidays. The first thing that this search found was that people could recall health education advice by seeking shade, using a sunscreen or covering the body. People knew what the expert advice said about the dangers of sun. However, people did not fully follow this advice because they had their own ways of understanding and making sense of the healthy and risky elements of their material lives. The knowledge produced by experts was different from that produced by holidaymakers. This distinction between expert and lay knowledge meant that expert knowledge was interpreted rather than followed to the letter by the public (Carter and Jordan, 2009). The expert knowledge does not straightforwardly determine public opinion. 1. Lay knowledge of symbolic risk The effects that the sun has on the body are both a source of material risk, from cancers, and of symbolic risk, such as being peely-wally (Carter and Jordan, 2009). Suntan became a material sign or symbol that is for the visual consumption of other tourists. 1. Beck’s thesis . The examples of sun exposure and of poisoned soil demonstrate how we may have entered into a particular kind of relationship to risk in society today. German sociologist Ulrich Beck examined the move from the Industrial Society in which political deliberations where concerns with the distribution of wealth to a Risk Society that focuses on the distribution of harm (cited in Carter and Jordan, 2009 p. 80). Beck also argues that we have become dependent on external information usually expert knowledge to assess the risks we face, instead of using personal experience or common sense. For example, the allotment holders could not determine the risks contained in their soil, they were told about potential danger by scientific experts. Similarly, the possible risk from sun exposure has to be made clear to people by expert evidence. One of Beck’s main concerns is the role of expert knowledge in defining the risks, whether that risk is nuclear radiation, arsenic in the soil or the sun. 1. Conclusion In modern society much more effort is being put into measuring risk. Experts aim to examine potential hazards and produce evidence that will allow us to make informed decisions. Assessing risk often relies on science and expertise. These are practices which involve choices and assumptions that can create debate. A risk society is one in which calculations of risk become increasingly prominent. Many modern risks are invisible and need experts to make them visible to the public. How to cite A Report That Examines The Role Of Expert And Lay Knowledge In Understanding And Managing Risk, Papers

A Report That Examines The Role Of Expert And Lay Knowledge In Understanding And Managing Risk Free Essays

This report is going to examine how risks we face in our daily lives rely on different forms of knowledge to create an understanding of them and their consequences. This report will examine how people use expert and lay knowledge about risks in order to live with them. A brief description of risk is provided. We will write a custom essay sample on A Report That Examines The Role Of Expert And Lay Knowledge In Understanding And Managing Risk or any similar topic only for you Order Now The discussion focuses on how we live with risk and interpret expert and lay knowledge regarding risk and risk avoidance. It is also suggested that people make their own choice as to what and how they use information and to what degree of risk they consider acceptable in their lives. This is influenced by the knowledge they have and how they interpret that. Clearly an expert will be in a stronger position to accurately assess risk compared to a lay person. 1. Expert Knowledge – someone that has knowledge, skill and is qualified in a particular subject. 2. Lay Knowledge – someone who does not have specialized knowledge or training in a subject. This report will examine three examples of risk and will detail not only expert information but it will review lay opinion as well. 1. Firstly the cycling and the benefits of wearing helmet will be assessed. 2. Then a case study that detailed an allotment and the hazardous substances found in the soil. 3. The last risk to be observed will be sun exposure, sun tanning and risks and how consumerism can play apart in forming our choices. 1. Our Risky Lives 1. Risk – a state in which there is a possibility of known danger or harm, which if avoided may lead to benefits (Carter and Jordan, 2009). Almost everything we do in life comes with some degree of risk. It is how we interpret the risk that determines how we live. Some risk is taken without thinking, some risk is unavoidable, and in other cases we can reduce the risk or avoid the risk all together. 1. Cycling and the benefits of wearing a helmet Cycling will introduce the idea of risks and risk management in our material lives. Cyclists manage their risk with lights, occasional hand signals and helmets. Cyclists have to negotiate the use of the helmet, whether or not to wear one but not doing so means any injury sustained may be the cyclist’s own fault. One study shown 85 per cent reduction in the risk of head injury among cyclists who wore helmets (Thompson et al., cited in Carter and Jordan, 2009). Other research found that, when car overtakes a cyclist, the car comes significantly closer to a cyclist who wears a helmet (Walker, cited in Carter and Jordan, 2009). Taking both studies into account seems to suggest that if you wear a helmet then you are more likely to have an accident but if you have an accident then you are less likely to have head injuries. 1. Hazardous substances found in the soil Soil on an allotment will show how knowledge of an invisible risk is produced by experts but can be contested and how the allotment users used knowledge to manage the risks. The benefits of a social activity such as gardening were suddenly brought into question by publication of a scientific test on the soil. The material environment changed from being good into something that was dangerous. The soil was safe then became poisonous and then become safe again, all without the soil itself being changed. The existence of two soil tests confirms that even within science there are debates over how best to assess risk. In the case study, the same soil shifted from being safe to dangerous and back again solely as a result of different measurement practices (Carter and Jordan, 2009). This shows how the expert knowledge may or may not influence the decisions people make about managing risk. Gardener did not listen to expert knowledge about safe soil, because two contrasting results of the tests did not feel quite trustworthy. 1. Sun Exposure and expert knowledge of sun risk The last risk to be assessed will be sun exposure and sun tanning and risks. Increasingly over the last number of years dangers of sun exposure and tanning have come to the fore. Even though advice and evidence which has been produced people still continue to expose themselves to the harmful UVA rays. In this section we can look at a second case study of risk and risk management concerning holidaymakers and their attitudes to a tan. To understand the apparently risky practices connected with sun exposure we have to take seriously the ways in which people make sense of expert advice, and measure it against their own knowledge and experiences of the material world in which they live (Carter and   Jordan, 2009). The research conducted by Simon Carter used a mixture of interviews and focus groups with tourist aged 20 and 35 years of age who regularly travelled abroad for holidays. The first thing that this search found was that people could recall health education advice by seeking shade, using a sunscreen or covering the body. People knew what the expert advice said about the dangers of sun. However, people did not fully follow this advice because they had their own ways of understanding and making sense of the healthy and risky elements of their material lives. The knowledge produced by experts was different from that produced by holidaymakers. This distinction between expert and lay knowledge meant that expert knowledge was interpreted rather than followed to the letter by the public (Carter and Jordan, 2009). The expert knowledge does not straightforwardly determine public opinion. 1. Lay knowledge of symbolic risk The effects that the sun has on the body are both a source of material risk, from cancers, and of symbolic risk, such as being peely-wally (Carter and Jordan, 2009). Suntan became a material sign or symbol that is for the visual consumption of other tourists. 1. Beck’s thesis . The examples of sun exposure and of poisoned soil demonstrate how we may have entered into a particular kind of relationship to risk in society today. German sociologist Ulrich Beck examined the move from the Industrial Society in which political deliberations where concerns with the distribution of wealth to a Risk Society that focuses on the distribution of harm (cited in Carter and Jordan, 2009 p. 80). Beck also argues that we have become dependent on external information usually expert knowledge to assess the risks we face, instead of using personal experience or common sense. For example, the allotment holders could not determine the risks contained in their soil, they were told about potential danger by scientific experts. Similarly, the possible risk from sun exposure has to be made clear to people by expert evidence. One of Beck’s main concerns is the role of expert knowledge in defining the risks, whether that risk is nuclear radiation, arsenic in the soil or the sun. 1. Conclusion In modern society much more effort is being put into measuring risk. Experts aim to examine potential hazards and produce evidence that will allow us to make informed decisions. Assessing risk often relies on science and expertise. These are practices which involve choices and assumptions that can create debate. A risk society is one in which calculations of risk become increasingly prominent. Many modern risks are invisible and need experts to make them visible to the public. How to cite A Report That Examines The Role Of Expert And Lay Knowledge In Understanding And Managing Risk, Papers